Fibroids occur in one in four women. Fibroids seen between the ages of 30-40 shrink after menopause. About 40% of women over 40 have fibroids, and about 75% of women with fibroids don’t know they have fibroids.
Why do fibroids occur?
Although the exact cause of fibroids is unknown, estrogen (female hormone) is thought to cause fibroids to grow. Fibroids will grow during this period as estrogen secretion increases during pregnancy. During menopause, estrogen levels decrease and fibroids shrink. People with fibroids in their families, especially those whose mothers and sisters have fibroids, are more likely to have fibroids.
Fibroids usually grow very slowly, but they grow more rapidly during pregnancy and in women taking hormone therapy containing estrogen. In the past, birth control pills were thought to cause fibroids because they contained estrogen and progesterone. However, there is no difference between women who use birth control pills and women who do not, in terms of the risk of uterine fibroids.
What are the types of fibroids?
Fibroids can be seen in the uterus, and in some cases, in the cervix. They are divided into 5 types according to the layer they are located in the uterus, these are:
Subserous fibroids: A type of fibroid seen in the outer layer of the uterus.
Intramural fibroids: A type of fibroid seen in the middle layer of the uterus.
Submucous fibroids: A type of fibroid seen in the inner layer of the uterus.
Stem fibroids: A type of fibroid that grows out of the uterus.
Parasitic fibroids: It is a type of fibroid that is located outside the uterus in the abdomen.
Fibroids may not show any symptoms!
Many fibroids do not cause any symptoms. Complaints arising from fibroids; The size of fibroids varies according to their location and number. The most common ailments caused by fibroids are inguinal and abdominal pain, fullness and pressure in the groin and abdomen, and pain during intercourse. In some cases, abnormal bleeding may occur between menstrual periods due to the pressure of the fibroids on the inner lining of the uterus. Due to the reduced bladder capacity, people may feel the need to urinate frequently. If the pressure due to the fibroid is not corrected, the kidneys can be damaged and lead to different health problems. Fibroids seen in the lower part of the uterus put pressure on the large intestines and rectum. Constipation and hemorrhoids may occur as bowel movements will be difficult due to this.
Fibroids can lead to infertility
Fibroids in the uterus cause infertility. The cause of 2-3% of infertility cases is fibroids. Fibroids can cause changes in the endometrium and prevent the fertilized egg from attaching to the uterus. It also puts pressure on the fallopian tube (ovarian tube), preventing the sperm from reaching the egg and fertilizing it. Pregnancy rate after removal of fibroids; although this depends on the age of the patient and the presence of other reasons preventing pregnancy, it is usually high.
However, women with fibroids have a 40% risk of miscarriage. Discomfort in the endometrial tissue and uterine blood flow can cause premature miscarriage. With the effect of increased estrogen during pregnancy, fibroids will increase, and depending on their position and size in the uterus, it will prevent the development of the baby and placenta (the baby’s partner) and cause miscarriage. After surgical removal of fibroids, 80% of patients who miscarry due to fibroids can give birth to healthy children.
Myoma is a treatable disease.
Fibroids can be diagnosed with a simple gynecological examination. Since fibroids can be confused with early pregnancy, ovarian and intestinal tumors, patients should undergo detailed examinations. Various imaging methods can be used in the diagnosis of fibroids according to the needs of the patient.
The most preferred treatment methods after the diagnosis of myoma are;
Regular doctor control: Myomas can be followed up with regular doctor control and early intervention can be made when necessary.
Surgical methods: Surgical removal may be necessary for rapidly growing fibroids with symptoms that reduce the quality of life of the person. The methods that can be preferred according to the needs of the person are; hysteroscopy, laparoscopy and laparotomy.